B. Shortages do not affect the economy, while scarcity does.
The easiest way to distinguish between the two is that scarcity is a naturally occurring limitation on the resource that cannot be replenished. A shortage is a market condition of a particular good at a particular price. Over time, the good will be replenished and the shortage condition resolved.
It was their loyalty to General George Washington. Though many deserted after several defeats, there were those who still believed that they can win and more importantly they believed that Washington will be able to do it. Even though it was cold and there was ice in the river the men still obeyed Washington where they successfully crossed the Delaware and took Trenton from the Hessians.