A. The Red Scare
Communists were associated with the color red because of the red flag of the Soviet Union -- thus the "Red Scare." One manifestation of the Red Scare was how people's privacy was invaded. Accusations about communists and communist sympathizers were aimed at all sorts of people. Many people in the Hollywood film industry were targeted during that time, for instance. But defenders of freedom (including film and television people) fought back against that. Those who aimed to protect the rights and liberties of each individual saw the Red Scare tactics as "witch hunts," where we suspect our neighbors of evil for no good reason.
Speaking of "witch hunts," the playwright Arthur Miller wrote a really powerful play in 1953, during the Cold War, which focused on the Salem witch trials. He was making the point that what was happening in the Red Scare (hunting for communists) was another manifestation of the witch-burning craze that had happened at a previous time in history.
They were given the right to swift justice as well as restrict payments to the King that could be applied through a council composed of 25 barons. It also protected them from unlawful imprisonment. Apart from that it also safeguarded the rights of the Church.
12. A. Eastern Europe
The United States do not intentionally want to participate in World War 2 due to the massive destruction caused by World War 1 until Japan’s forces bombed the Pearl Harbor. That incident triggered them to form allies. North Africa, Canada (Northern Europe) and Brazil (South America) are US allies including USSR and France.
President Franklin Roosevelt and the then Prime Minister Winston Churchill agreed to concentrate first to Germany since it’s the closest country to them. And Germany is located in Eastern Europe including Italy. Therefore, the first major offensive was undoubtedly deployed there.
13. D. Italy
Axis nations are a group of countries opposing the Allied Powers in World War 2. Italy is one of them and was knocked out due to the decrease in resources on their military forces. Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan also belong to the Axis nations; however, they are strong enough to be knocked out.
France does not belong to the Axis nations.
14. C. To avoid the mistakes of World War 1
From the word itself ‘neutrality’ or ‘neutral’ (rootword) meaning not taking sides in a conflict. The US did not want to take sides in either countries involved because of the damages done by the first world war.
To side with the allies or Axis is obviously not the main goal of neutrality acts of the 1930’s, though, the US army actually sided with the Allies due to Japan’s attack to Pearl Harbor. And Japan is part of the Axis powers.
15. C. Marshall Plan
It was an American initiative proposed by Secretary of State George C. Marshall to help rebuild Western Europe after the end of World War 2 in which the United States gave over $13 billion to them. Because of their downfall after the war, they’re susceptible to exploitation by the communist threat, and in order to avoid this, the United States helped them through this plan. Western Europe and the US were allies during the World War 2. This is the reason why the United States help them.
Financial Plan is used for business. It's still even widely used these days, not in wars.
Democracy Plan is intended to promote democratic engagement.
Kennan Plan is the basis of the foreign policy "containment" to avoid communism threat. However, it does not involve any financial aid.
16. D. Containment
Containment is the US foreign policy expressed in a military manner which helps prevent the spread of communism to other countries. Its goal is just to defend existing regimes from communism. It was used by the US forces to defend South Korea against the Korean War.
Roll back is the most aggressive foreign policy which could be designated as the opposite of containment. Its goal is to overthrow communist regime in power. This is more on the offensive part.
Isolationism is a policy of staying out of the disputes of other nations. Its goal is not to take part or take a side in whatever nations involved in war. It’s somewhat related to Neutrality Acts of 1930.
Militarization is a process of organizing itself for military conflict. It’s more on the violence side.
19. C. He didn’t want the government to get overly involved.
Hoover greatly believed in the spirit of individualism, that hard work pays its own rewards and that is the only thing needed to survive. So he just asked individuals to work harder and the business leaders to keep workers employed. He believed that retaining workers and continuing production would help sustain the economy.
However, by late 1931, he recognized the need for some government intervention upon seeing that those steps were not enough.
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They resented the Office of Price Administration during the war because of the process that they used to ration supplies was very difficult and confusing. Apart from that, it was full of red tape and it varied from time to time.
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